Topics
RRS John Biscoe
Annenkov Island Survey HOME PAGE.

The Voyage South
(This page)

5 Months Camping on Annenkov IslandThe Voyage Home.Documentation.

Topics
Wheel watch on the John Biscoe
Annenkov Island Survey HOME PAGE.

The Voyage South
(This page)

5 Months Camping on Annenkov IslandThe Voyage Home.Documentation.


Background photo, North-Eastern coast of Annenkov Island, viewed looking South-West

The Voyage South

In May 1972, as a pending graduate geologist from the University of Birmingham, I applied and was accepted for the post of contract geologist with the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). After several months of training (from June to September 1972), I was scheduled to embark on one of the two operational ships to sail from Southampton Docks to an undisclosed BAS research station in the British Antarctic Territory. The day before my departure, I received an envelope with a brief (dated 2nd October), which informed me that on the 3rd of October, I would be sailing on the Royal Research Ship John Biscoe to undertake a detailed geological survey of Annenkov Island. (See copy of instructions reproduced HERE).

I 'signed on' to the John Biscoe as a supernumerary on the morning of the 3rd October and was assigned to cabin 12, sharing with Malky Macrae. The ensuing three week voyage south involved active work in running the ship including being on 'gash' duty (serving and washing up after meals), steering the ship (on wheel watch), maintenance (including paint chipping and then re-painting the steel decks and deck equipment etc.).

The sequence of photographs on this page (below) illustrate the voyage south from Southampton to South Georgia. Click on the small (thumbnail) images to view full size images.

Departure from Southampton.

Took place promptly at 2:30pm on the 3rd October 1972.

Letter advising appendicectomy. Departing Southampton Docks, 3rd October 1972. Departing from Southampton Docks, afternoon of 3rd October 1972.
Passing the Needles, Isle of Wight, afternoon of 3rd October 1972. Map showing the approximate track of the John Biscoe, October-November 1972. Heavy weather in the Bay of Biscay, 5th October 1972.
Standing by the yacht Gay Adventuress, 6th October 1972. On wheel watch on the bridge of the John Biscoe, October 1972. Checking lifeboat provisions on the RRS John Biscoe, October 1972.
Two of the crew on the aft deck of the RRS John Biscoe, October 1972. Officers and BAS supernumeraries on the bridge of the RRS John Biscoe, October 1972. Keeping cool on the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, October 1972.

Crossing the Line Ceremony (17th October, 1972).

Extract from Diary for 17th October 1972
"In the afternoon, starting at 13.00 hrs, the crossing the line ceremony took place. First of all the ships bell was rung - then out onto the foredeck trooped King Neptune (Jim Shirtcliffe), his Queen (Pat Crockford), plus attendants all in costume. They sat in office on the foredeck hatch cover facing starboard. Numerous attendants included police officers (Malky Macrae and Neil MacAllister), and a Magician with telescope (Don Watkins). The court was now ready with the 'Dock' consisting of a tank of water in which the plaintiffs had to stand."

"The Usher read out the name of the first person called to court which was Don Mackay who duly appeared looking somewhat apprehensive (with good reason). He stood in the tank of water (ably assisted by the police), facing King Neptune. Holding a Holystone (stone brick used for scrubbing wooden decks), Don swore to 'tell the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth'. First of all he had to be made respectable which involved the application of coloured dough from buckets to his face and hair etc., and then shaved with a gigantic cut-throat razor. The charges were then read out which included 'Crossing into the Southern Ocean without permission', 'Unlawful capture of flying-fish' etc., each charge sheet included something topically amusing which related to that individual. The Magician then showed him 'The Line' through a gigantic telescope (the eyepiece was blacked - so a ring was left round the observers eye!). He then had to plead to the charges after which he was fined an appropriate amount (to go towards the cost of a buffet celebratory meal in the evening). The 'Doctor' certified that the person was fit to enter the southern hemisphere by applying mustard with a medical wooden spatula followed by coloured seawater (a fine medicine). Finally each plaintiff had to come forward and kiss a flying fish at the Queens feet, whereupon an egg was cracked over their head and a new name written on their back. After Don, I was the next plaintiff to be called up.....!"

"In the evening the ships cooks prepared a magnificent buffet and there were three barrels of lager. Some of the crew joined us and we had a good party!"

Crossing the Line ceremony on the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, 17th October 1972. Crossing the Line ceremony on the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, 17th October 1972. Crossing the Line ceremony on the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, 17th October 1972.
Crossing the Line ceremony on the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, 17th October 1972. Crossing the Line Certificate issued to Lobster (Neé Tim Pettigrew), 17th October 1972. Supernumeraries on the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, October 1972.

Montevideo, Uruguay.

The ship docked at Montevideo at 2.00pm local time on the 26th of October 1972. It remained there for two days for re-fueling and re-provisioning. After a little over three weeks at sea, everyone appreciated the opportunity to spend some time ashore.

View of Montevideo (background), looking across the the foredeck of the RRS John Biscoe, 26th October 1972. Approaching Montevideo on board the RRS John Biscoe, flying the Uruguayan flag and the yellow 'Q' flag, 26th October 1972. Plaza Independencia, Montevideo, Uruguay, 27th October 1972.
Looking down the Avenida 18 de Julio from the Plaza Independencia, Montevideo, Uruguay, 27th October 1972. Sleeping dog in a doorway in Montevideo, Uruguay. 27th October 1972. Approximate track of the RRS John Biscoe between Montevideo (Uruguay), and Stanley (Falkland Islands) October 1972.
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Onwards to the Falkland Islands (South Atlantic).

The ship departed Montevideo at about 10.30am local time on the 28th October bound for the Falkland Islands, arriving and anchoring in Stanley Harbour at about 10:30am local time on the 1st November. At about 13:30 (high tide), the ship weighed anchor to manoeuvre alongside the jetty where she grounded when the tide ebbed.

View from the aft deck of the RRS John Biscoe of heavy weather in the South Atlantic, 31st October 1972. Map of the Falkland Islands. Map of East Falkland showing Stanley.
Anchored off Stanley, Falkland Islands, on the RRS John Biscoe, morning of 1st November 1972. View across Stanley Harbour, Falkland Islands, showing the RRS John Biscoe and the SS Darwin. 4th November 1972. The approximate track of the RRS John Biscoe between Stanley (Falkland Islands), and South Georgia. 4th November to the 7th November 1972.
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Towards Journey's End at South Georgia.

The ship stayed at Stanley until the 4th November when the voyage from Stanley to South Georgia commenced at about 17:30.

View aft from the RRS John Biscoe during departure from Stanley Harbour (Falkland Islands), 4th November 1972. View aft from the RRS John Biscoe after departure from the Falkland Islands (visible on the horizon). 4th November 1972. Sunset from the RRS John Biscoe after departure from the Falkland Islands. Wandering Albatross flying above the wake of the ship. Evening of the 4th November 1972.
Map of South Georgia, showing the track of RRS John Biscoe, 7th November 1972. Taken from on board RRS John Biscoe, anchored in Stromness Bay, South Georgia, looking towards the disused whaling Station. About midday, 7th November 1972. Gemini landing craft with (left to right); Ricky Chinn, Captain Malcolm Phelps, Duncan Carse (to be left at Stromness whaling station), Marty Shakesby (Ship's 3rd Officer). Taken from on board RRS John Biscoe, anchored in Stromness Bay, South Georgia. About midday, 7th November 1972.
View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe of the Stromness whaling station, South Georgia. A Gemini landing craft with Ricky Chinn, Captain Malcolm Phelps, Duncan Carse and Ship's Officer, has just beached. About midday, 7th November 1972. View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe of an iceberg and folding in the rocks of the Cumberland Bay Formation on the north-eastern coast of South Georgia. Afternoon of the 7th November 1972. View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe of folding in the rocks of the Cumberland Bay Formation on the north-eastern coast of South Georgia. Afternoon of the 7th November 1972.
View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe of a large tabular iceberg grounded off Cumberland Bay on the north-eastern coast of South Georgia. Afternoon of the 7th November 1972. View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe of intesely folded rocks of the Cumberland Bay Formation in Cumberland Bay on the north-eastern coast of South Georgia. Afternoon of the 7th November 1972. .
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Arrival at King Edward Point, South Georgia.

The ship arrived at King Edward Point (Cumberland Bay), and made fast to the Jetty at about 5:00pm on the 7th November 1972. The first task was to effect the relief of the scientific station with exchange of personnel and unloading supplies & equipment from the holds and deck of the ship - hard work!

Extract from diary, Tuesday 7th November, 1972
"After travelling south-east along the coast, we turned into Cumberland East Bay (about 4:45pm). First sight of Shackleton House [scientific station accommodation] and Grytviken [Whaling Station]. Cloud remaining over the land enveloped us again as we saw a "Reception Committee" assembled on the [King Edward Point] jetty to greet us. After the ship moored at the jetty, a scruffy set of individuals came on board. Tony [Gannon] introduced me to Eric Lawther who is to be my GA [General Assistant] for our 5 month stay on Annenkov [Island]. After we had finished supper [on board], went up to Shackleton House avoiding large but fairly placid Elephant Seals strewn all over the path and of all shapes and sizes. Shackleton House most impressive, much more like a hotel than a Base! Snooker board in the rec[reation] room with darts & a superb bar - only they had run out of beer!"

The 8th November was spent in unloading equipment & supplies from the John Biscoe.

"Reception Committee" on the jetty at King Edward Point, South Georgia. Eric Lawther is twelfth from the right (in orange anorak at the back). Viewed from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe as it prepared to moor at the jetty. Afternoon of the 7th November 1972. Unloading the forward hold of the John Biscoe at the jetty at King Edward Point, South Georgia. Left to right, Tony Gannon, Tim Gunn(?), Neil Tappin & Malky MacRae. 8th November 1972. Unloading the John Biscoe at the jetty at King Edward Point, South Georgia. 8th November 1972.
Unloading the John Biscoe at the jetty at King Edward Point, South Georgia. 8th November 1972. An Elephant Seal in the Tussock grass at King Edward Point, South Georgia (Tim Pettigrew on the right). An Elephant Seal in the Tussock grass at King Edward Point, South Georgia (Tim Pettigrew on the right). 8th November 1972. Looking west from King Edward Point across King Edward Cove to the old whaling station at Grytviken, South Georgia. 8th November 1972
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Exploring Grytviken, South Georgia.

The 9th November 1972 presented an opportunity to go for a walk and explore the old whaling station at Grytviken.

Extract from diary, Thursday 9th November 1972
"After lunch went out with Don W[atkins] for a walk to Grytviken. Went on board board two steam-driven sealing boats -amazed at primitive accommodation. Got into engine room of of one - reciprocating engines apprently in excellent condition - boilers oil fired. [Walking on] found a badminton hall - well used by FIDS [BAS personnel], - new rackets and shuttlecocks - [we] had a knock-up. Beautiful church - fully furnished, candles in brass candlesticks etc. Many of the houses in Grytviken are still furnished - cabinets, tables, chairs carpets, curtains at the windows. The machinery in the workshops in full working condition. Met Captain Phelps [Master of the John Biscoe] - chatted to us and had a game of Badminton with him in the hall. He showed us Sir Ernest Shackleton's grave in the whaler's cemetery and also the hydro-electric generating plant which served Grytviken."

View of the assorted whaling craft at Grytviken, South Georgia, looking north from the whaler's cemetery. 9th November 1972. The grave of Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton in the whaler's cemetery at Grytviken, South Georgia. 9th November 1972. The grave of Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (obverse of gravestone, with inscription), in the whaler's cemetery at Grytviken, South Georgia. 9th November 1972. The church at Grytviken, South Georgia. Don Watkins sitting on entrance steps. 9th November 1972.
Ice covered leaves of Tussock Grass at King Edward Point, South Georgia. 9th November 1972.
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Final Destination; Annenkov Island.

The Ship's Timetable
On Friday 10th November the ship was loaded with food and equipment to be used by the three survey parties working in different parts of South Georgia (including our survey of Annenkov Island). All three parties would embark and be transported by the John Biscoe to the work areas, and put ashore using RIB landing craft and the ship's motor launch. The stopping points were first of all Stromness Bay Whaling Station to pick up Duncan Carse (left there four days previously on arrival of the John Biscoe at South Georgia). Then to the Bay of Isles to land geologist Roger Clayton with GA Tony Gannon on Salisbury Plain. After anchoring overnight in Rosita Harbour, the plan was to proceed on the 12th November to Elsehul and erect a pre-fabricated hut for the use (later in the Summer), of Mike Payne for a fur seal study. Anchor there overnight, and on Monday 13th November, proceed west and anchor off the southern side of Bird Island to land Jim Conroy and the main party of zoologists (Mike Payne, Neil MacAllister, Richard Berry, Pete Prince), together with their equipment and supplies. Then sail to anchor overnight in Queen Maud Bay, on the southern side of South Georgia. Finally, on Tuesday the 14th November, the ship would anchor off Annenkov Island to land Eric and me with all our supplies and equipment for our five month stay.

Saturday 11th November the ship sailed from King Edward Point at 07:30am.
Extract from Diary: "Sailed from KEP at 07:30 prompt, weather good. Picked up Duncan Carse at Stromness and then sailed on reaching the Bay of Isles at approx 14-00 hrs. Weather bad - began to blow a blizzard - bitterly cold with poor visibility. Tony [Gannon] and Roger [Clayton] began to prepare for departure. Two Gemini landing craft put over the side and loaded with provisions & equipment brought up from the hold. Eric [Lawther], Tony [Gannon] and Roger [Clayton] went ashore first helmed by Marty Shakesby [ship's 3rd officer] - Dave [Bray, ship's 2nd officer] helmed the other Gemini - Pat Crockford [ship's crew] as crewman. Duncan Carse also went ashore for a look. Conditions looked poor in the RIBS - swell not too bad but enough to cause water to slop about in the bottom - apparently, when under way, it was impossible to keep eyes open because of the driving snow. Conditions on Salisbury plain [landing beach] apparently very bleak with much snow. Took 4-5 combined journeys to get all their equipment ashore. Said goodbye to Roger on last Gemini trip & wished him luck. Geminis brought back on board at about 16.00hrs. Ship proceeded to Rosita Harbour where it anchored for the night."

Map showing the voyage of the John Biscoe at South Georgia, departing King Edward Point on the 11th November & arriving Annenkov Island 14th November 1972. View of the Allardyce Range, South Georgia, viewed looking south from the deck of the John Biscoe on the 11th November 1972. View of Mount Sugartop, South Georgia, viewed looking south-west from the deck of the John Biscoe departing from King Edward Point on the 11th November 1972.
View of the Nordenskjöld Glacier, South Georgia, viewed looking south-east from the deck of the John Biscoe departing from King Edward Point, South Georgia on the 11th November 1972. Closer view of the Nordenskjöld Glacier, South Georgia, viewed looking south-east from the deck of the John Biscoe departing from King Edward Point, South Georgia on the 11th November 1972. View from the deck of the the John Biscoe of Roger Clayton (centre), in a Gemini landing craft helmed by David Bray, about to be landed on Salisbury Plain (Bay of Isles, South Georgia), on the 11th November 1972.
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At Elsehul.

Extract from Diary Sunday 12th November 1972
"Arrved at Elsehul just before midday (moved from Rosita Harbour just after breakfast). The ships motor launch and one Gemini [landing craft] launched over the side of the ship. The purpose of launching was to erect a prefabricated wooden hut for Mike Payne [Zoologist] & Neil Mac Allister [GA] to use for studying seals later in the season. Although they will be living in tents, the hut will be used for working and storage. I went ashore with Tony Gannon & Pete [Crockford] (Bosun) in gemini, Pete helming. Jack [Temple] and Roger [Scott] in the same boat. Went at hell of a rate (20 knots or so) bumpy over waves - but fairly calm sea. Weather windy but clear. landed on grey sandy beach with steep slopes of Tussock Grass. Quite a few people were landed before us. Numerous Elephant & Fur Seals plus some Gentoo Penguins - took some photos. Walked over headland with Jack, Roger, Simon & Colin [Simon C. Anderson & Colin Ballamy (blind in one eye, nick-named Nelson), were the ship's mess boys], being careful to avoid the larger Fur Seals (Bulls protect territory - can move fast and bite!). Climbed down into next bay and got photos of Gentoos, Elephant Seals and King Penguins. Simon caught a Penguin & was severely pecked for his pains. Climbed back to the landing bay and helped to unload some sections of the hut and erect them. Returned to ship in the motor launch."

Map detail of the Elsehul & Bird Island areas at the extreme western end of South Georgia. Fur seals in the Tussock grass at Elsehul, South Georgia. 12th November 1972. View of Mount Sugartop, South Georgia, viewed looking south-west from the deck of the John Biscoe departing from King Edward Point on the 11th November 1972.
King & Gentoo Penguins, Elephant & Fur Seals on the beach at Elsehul, South Georgia. 12th November 1972. Elephant Seals on the beach at Elsehul, South Georgia. 12th November 1972. Gentoo Penguins at Elsehul, South Georgia. 12th November 1972.
Erecting a pre-fabricated observation hut at Elsehul, South Georgia. 12th November 1972. Erecting a pre-fabricated observation hut at Elsehul, South Georgia. 12th November 1972. The roof is just being put in place. View of a newly-erected pre-fabricated observation hut at Elsehul, South Georgia. Photo taken from the motor launch of the RRS John Biscoe returning to the ship after picking up personnel (who erected the hut) from the beach. 12th November 1972.
View of the RRS John Biscoe anchored off Elsehul, South Georgia. Photo taken from the Biscoe's motor launch returning to the ship after picking up personnel from Elsehul beach. 12th November 1972.
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Off Bird Island.

Extract from Diary Monday 13th November 1972
"Operation Bird Island. Got up at 9.00am and sthe ship weighed anchor soon afterwards, and sailed round to the southern side of Bird Island. Sunny day - good working temperature. Started unloading cargo at about 10.00am using two Gemini [RIB] landing craft plus the ship's motor launch. Very hard work - I helped to load the launch & geminis. Took us, with break for lunch, until 4.00pm to land the party comprising Jim Conroy, Mike Payne, Neil MacAllister, Rick Berry & Peter Prince."

Loading a Gemini (RIB) of the RRS John Biscoe with supplies & equipment for the scientific party on Bird Island, South Georgia. 13th November 1972. Loading the motor launch of the RRS John Biscoe with supplies & equipment for the scientific party on Bird Island, South Georgia. 13th November 1972.
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Off Queen Maud Bay.

Extract from Diary Monday 13th November 1972
"After completing the landing of the Bird Island party, we rounded the western extremity of South Georgia and headed for an anchorage in Queen Maud Bay. Beautiful sunset although we couldn't see the sun because of thick cloud behind us, [to the west] the peaks of South Georgia were in sunlight with fantastic pastel shades of salmon pink to mauve as the sun went down. First glimpse of Annenkov Island - snow covered - our turn to land tomorrow!"

View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe, looking north-east at the sun-lit peaks of South Georgia, at Queen Maud Bay on the evening of 13th November 1972. View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe, looking north-east at the sun-lit peaks of South Georgia, at Queen Maud Bay on the evening of 13th November 1972. View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe, looking north-east at the sun-lit peaks of South Georgia, at Queen Maud Bay on the evening of 13th November 1972.
View from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe, looking north-east at the sun-lit peaks of South Georgia, at Queen Maud Bay on the evening of 13th November 1972.
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Annenkov Island At Last!

Extract from Diary Tuesday 14th November 1972
"Sailed from anchorage in Queen Maud Bay at 06.30am - weather cloudy - sea very calm - all set for a smooth landing."

"5.45pm. Safely landed. Went very smoothly - anchored off in place recommended - Annenkov standing out ruggedly, summit of Olstad Peak lost in cloud - intertidal marine platform very marked. Started to get stuff up from the [ship's] hold at about 9.45am. First Gemini [RIB] left the ship (with Eric [Lawther, GA] + passengers Duncan Carse being one plus some gear; mainly food [sledging] boxes at about 10.00am. Second Gemini driven by Pete Crockford (bosun). More people ferried ashore as it was thought there might be a bit of a distance to the site selected for the tents. Pete's Gemini wouldn't start on second journey back - had to transfer to Marty's [Shakesby] Gemini. All the cargo - lifted out - new engine fitted. After saying goodbye & thanks to Simon, [S.T. Culshaw, ship's First Officer] climbed down into Marty's Gemini with last of the gear to be transported ashore. Headed away from the Biscoe in fine drizzle waving goodbye to Simon, Dave & Mozzy (ship's crew). Headed to landing beach - jumped out - water came over the top of one wellington - helped pull Gemini onto beach to unload gear which included a 45 gallon drum of paraffin [Avtur - fuel for primus stove and tilley lamp]. We rolled the drum up the beach and up-ended it to be left there permanently. The rest of the gear was piled initially on the upper part of the beach. Meanwhile, Eric [Lawther] had found a suitable place for the camp site. We made our way up the steeply shelving sandy-pebbly beach strewn with Elephant seals (bulls & pups), Skuas and Sheathbills. Gentoo Penguins on stone 'nests' on upper part of beach the excreta of which smelt fishy & pervaded the atmosphere. Even with help - quite difficult scrambling up hummocky Tussock Grass made doubly slippery by Penguin excreta, the whole undermined by Prion [small birds] burrows. Eventually all gear was assembled at the camp site. Returned to beach to collect camera. Everyone then came back to the beach to return to the ship in the two Gemini landing craft at 12:15 which was well within the return schedule. Much saying of goodbyes and shaking of hands, then they were off and Eric and myself were left by ourselves + a lot of Elephant seals and birds gazing towards the departing Gemini craft and, in the background, hazy in the mist, looking rather folorn and dreamlike - the Biscoe."

View of the north-east coast of Annenkov Island from the deck of the RRS John Biscoe, 14th November 1972.
The RRS John Biscoe off the north-eastern coast of Annenkov Island (visible in the background). Equipment ready for transport ashore includes wooden sledging boxes (food). Personnel, left to right; Roger Scott, two crew members, Pete Crockford (Bosun), Eric Lawther. Landing craft (Gemini) just visible on extreme right of picture. 4th November 1972. Gemini preparing to depart from the landing beach on the north-eastern coast of Annenkov Island, to the RRS John Biscoe after landing E. Lawther & T. Pettigrew. Personnel include, left to right; Pete Crockford (Bosun, waving), Eric Lawther, standing on extreme right of picture. 14th November 1972. Gemini departing from the landing beach on the north-eastern coast of Annenkov Island after landing E. Lawther & T. Pettigrew. The RRS John Biscoe faintly visible in the misty background. 14th November 1972.
The three man pyramid tent used by Eric Lawther & Tim Pettigrew from 14th November 1972 until 15th April 1973, during their 5 month survey of Annenkov Island. The sledging (food) ration boxes placed on the tent valences helped to ensure stability of the tent in high winds. As the food was consumed and the boxes emptied, they were filled with rock specimens collected during the geological survey. Eric Lawther pictured outside the tent. November 1972. Part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies map of South Georgia (1st edition,1958). In 1972, this was the most detailed map available of Annenkov Island. Sketch map of the south-eastern end of Annenkov Island showing the landing beach, main camp site and water supply.
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Setting Up Camp on Annenkov Island.

"Back up to our camp site - for a moment we surveyed the boxes & parcels strewn about on the marshy tussocky ground - then action as we erected the first 3-man tent for our stores. Whilst doing this I noticed that the John Biscoe had quietly slipped anchor and was gradually moving westwards, back the way we had come. Erected 2nd tent, Eric put in the groundsheet, absolutely fantastic in the way he organised putting up tents and storage of gear. Soon had both tents up - tried to dig a drainage trench round them but ground frozen just under the surface. Went down to the beach to fill containers with paraffin [from the up-ended drum]. Came back, finished stowing gear - climbed into tent - got the primus going - made a cup of coffee and had a meal of biscuits spread with butter & apricot jam. At 6.00pm tried the Squadcal [Radio transmitter/receiver]. Almost immediately in touch with King Edward Point loud and clear on both sides. Had a good meal [from one of the sledging boxes] of soup, mutton stew washed down with tea. Listened to BBC World Service on transistor radio set. Lit Tilley lamp, turned in at 11.05pm"

Continued as 5 Months Camping on Annenkov Island.


Web site first published 19th July 2017.
Last updated 8th August 2017
© Tim Pettigrew 2017.